Tōhoku Earthquake Massacre The Tohoku earthquake shook northern-eastern Japan on March 11th in 2011. The 11 March 2011 magnitude-9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake off the eastern coast of Japan was one of the largest recorded earthquakes in history. Several hours later 9-foot (2.7-metre) tsunami waves struck the coasts of California and Oregon in North America. Impact Summary; Technical Summary; USGS Audio CoreCast Interview with Evelyn Roeloffs - Effect on Water Levels in … The epicenter was detected 64 miles off of the Sendai coast and was estimated to be only 18.6 miles below the surface. Image of the Day Land Water Human Presence Earthquakes The 9.1 magnitude (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (20 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes. Aftershocks continued, many exceeding magnitude-7.0. Magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w ) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km. As the floodwaters retreated back to the sea, they carried with them enormous quantities of debris, as well as thousands of victims caught in the deluge. More than 127,000 buildings collapsed and almost 16,000 people died. This movie shows the seismic wave field in the Earth for two hours after the Tohoku Magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011. John Rafferty, associate editor of Earth sciences at Encyclopædia Britannica, discussing tsunamis. More than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the year after the earthquake, the largest a magnitude 7.9. The epicenter was detected 64 miles off of the Sendai coast and was estimated to be only 18.6 miles below the surface. Summary Poster. Photo Credit: Tōhoku Tourism Promotion Organization. Fore and aftershocks - Scientists estimate that over 800 earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or more were recorded following the main earthquake. Earthquake and Tsunami near Sendai, Japan. This is the most devastating earthquake to occur in Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake caused over 5,500 deaths and Here’s a look at the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan in March of 2011.. March 11, 2011 - At 2:46 p.m., a 9.1 magnitude earthquake takes place 231 … The earthquake triggered tsunami warnings throughout the Pacific basin. It generated waves 11 to 12 feet (3.3 to 3.6 metres) high along the coasts of Kauai and Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands chain and 5-foot (1.5-metre) waves along the island of Shemya in the Aleutian Islands chain. This is the fourth largest earthquake The earthquake was the fifth-strongest since 1900, and the seventh-largest in recorded history. The largest fault slip ever recorded caused the tsunami that hit Japan. This is a list of earthquakes in 2011.Only earthquakes of magnitude 6 or above are included, … Photo Credit: Tōhoku Tourism Promotion Organization. A wave measuring some 33 feet high inundated the coast and flooded parts of the city of Sendai, including its airport and the surrounding countryside. This magnitude 9.1 earthquake only released about 3 per cent of the energy of a theoretical magnitude 10 quake. of the wave, only the arrival times, The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. The event began with a powerful earthquake off the northeastern coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which caused widespread damage on land and initiated a series of large tsunami waves that devastated many coastal areas of the country, most notably in the Tōhoku region (northeastern Honshu). Instrument: Seismograph. since the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami caused nearly 230,000 deaths and $10 billion in damage. 3. (Some geologists argue that this portion of the Eurasian Plate is actually a fragment of the North American Plate called the Okhotsk microplate.) On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 8.9 earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) east of Sendai. The magnitude was 9. The damages from the earthquake was dramatic. The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. This movie shows the seismic wave field in the Earth for two hours after the Tohoku Magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011. It was later reported that a satellite orbiting at the outer edge of Earth’s atmosphere that day had detected infrasonics (very low-frequency sound waves) from the quake. Wikipedia The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin?) The seismic events shown took place on that same day, between 01h41 and 23h59 (GMT). (The early estimate of magnitude 8.9 was later revised upward.) The March 11 temblor was felt as far away as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia; Kao-hsiung, Taiwan; and Beijing, China. The Tōhoku earthquake struck at 2:46pm on the 11th of March in Tōhoku, Japan. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a meltdown. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake off the coast of Japan created a tidal wave 40m high and shifted the entire main island of Honshu east by 2.4m. The most powerful earthquake ever recorded to hit Japan (magnitude 9.1) . Although, the recent event ruptured a part of the focal region of the expected earthquake." Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. At 2:45 pm on March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake rocked Japan. A part of the subduction zone measuring approximately 190 miles (300 km) long by 95 miles (150 km) wide lurched as much as 164 feet (50 metres) to the east-southeast and thrust upward about 33 feet (10 metres). Large stretches of land were left submerged under seawater, particularly in lower-lying areas. (Nearly two years later, on December 7, 2012, a magnitude-7.3 tremor originated from the same plate boundary region. How it Began. It also shortened the day by 6.8 µs. The epicentre was located some 80 miles (130 km) east of the city of Sendai, Miyagi prefecture, and the focus occurred at a depth of 18.6 miles (about 30 km) below the floor of the western Pacific Ocean. The earthquake was caused by the rupture of a stretch of the subduction zone associated with the Japan Trench, which separates the Eurasian Plate from the subducting Pacific Plate. The Tohoku earthquake, the whole world had shaken the whole world. According … 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin ) was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC ) … Here are some of the amazing facts about the Japan earthquake and tsunami. On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 8.9 earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) east of Sendai. A magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck off Japan’s northeastern coast. The earthquake was so strong that it shifted Earth on its axis. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was a 9.0-magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves. It was measured at 8.4 on the JMA seismic intensity scale The earthquake happened 130 kilometres (81 mi) off Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, on the east coast of the Tōhoku of Japan, on March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC.It was at a depth of 24.4 km (15.2 miles). Omissions? Unlike the recent M 9.0 earthquake, the 1933 earthquake did not occur as the result of thrust faulting on the subduction zone plate interface, but rather within the Pacific plate just seaward of the Japan Trench. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. The epicentre was located130 km east of the city Sendai, and affected countries around the world. … The quake caused no injuries and little damage.) On May 22, 1960, the largest earthquake in recorded history—magnitude 9.5—struck southern Chile. The tsunami raced outward from the epicentre at speeds that approached about 500 miles (800 km) per hour. The Tōhoku Earthquake was a magnitude-nine earthquake that struck the northeastern coast of Japan. Tsunami source and water heights over a tsunami travel time (TTT) map (data current as of 10/10/2011). The 1700 Cascadia earthquake occurred along the Cascadia subduction zone on January 26, 1700 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. 1. deaths... more, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami data available from NOAA/NGDC (2011), Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, Vol. https://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011, LiveScience - Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011: Facts and Information, National Geographic - Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, NOAA National Center for Environmental Information - Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 2 (4), p. 305-323, DOI:10.1080/19475705.2011.632443 (Paula Dunbar, Heather McCullough, George Mungov, Jesse Varner, and Kelly Stroker), Majority of the deaths and missing are within the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami data available from NOAA/NGDC, IOC/UNESCO Bulletin on Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Deaths, International Tsunami Information Center, Tohoku Tsunami, PMEL National Center for Tsunami Research, Tohoku Tsunami. The Tōhoku earthquake (9.1 magnitude) hit Japan on March 11, 2011 for a duration of 5 minutes, and was followed by a tsunami which claimed the life of close to 16.000 people. View Historic Article Explorer Profile: Navakanesh M Batmanathan, Earthquake Geologist What if you could do something to help people who live in areas that are prone to earthquakes? The March 11, 2011, great earthquake in Japan may have shortened the length of Earth days and shifted its axis. At 0.5X animation speed, 1 second of animation = 1 hour in real time. (5.2 MB PDF) Downloads. This is the deadliest tsunami Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 4. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He holds an M.A. I would suggest adding a section on earthquake magnitude at Fukishima, which was apparently 6.8 and i woud add a section on damage at Fukishima 2 Daiini which went unstable but is back in control now.-- Patbahn 00:12, 19 March 2011 (UTC) Transport - Kesennuma Line. The March 11, 2011, earthquake was the strongest to strike the region since the beginning of record keeping in the late 19th century, and it is considered one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded. The earthquake caused a tsunami with waves that exceeded over 120 feet in height which in turn caused nuclear accidents at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Map of the northern part of Japan's main island of Honshu depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of March 11, 2011. It does not provide information on the height nor the strength Updates? For conciseness, only earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 or an intensity greater than lower-6 on the shindo scale are listed here. The sounds are real seismic data taken from 8 seismometers on a great circle around the globe, and sped up into the sonic range. 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami In 2011 Japan experienced an earthquake of the magnitude 9.1 which was the most powerful earthquake to ever hit the nation and the world’s fourth most powerful ever recorded in history. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake off the coast of Japan created a tidal wave 40m high and shifted the entire main island of Honshu east by 2.4m. Image of the Day for March 12, 2011. Finally, some 18 hours after the quake, waves roughly 1 foot (0.3 metre) high reached the coast of Antarctica and caused a portion of the Sulzberger Ice Shelf to break off its outer edge. If the initial estimate is confirmed, it will be the fifth largest earthquake in recorded history. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that reached heights of up to 40.5m in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture, and traveled up to 10km inland. If the initial estimate is confirmed, it will be the fifth largest earthquake in recorded history. The March 11, magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Japan may have shortened the length of each Earth day and shifted its axis. … Fore and aftershocks - Scientists estimate that over 800 earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or more were recorded following the main earthquake. 1. (2016) Tectonic summaries of magnitude 7 and greater earthquakes from 2000 to 2015, USGS Open-File Report 2016-1192. The first two sequences are filtered to emphasize surface waves and the second two filtered to emphasize body waves. Five million tons of material and debris from Japan were swept out to the Pacific Ocean by the tsunami. Image credit: NASA › Full resolution jpeg (180 Kb) › Learn more. The magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck at 2:46 pm. Image of the Day Land Water Human Presence Earthquakes in Japanese studies from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. More than 127,000 buildings collapsed and almost 16,000 people died. This is a list of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake.Japan had experienced 900 aftershocks after the M9.1 earthquake on March 11, 2011 with about 60 aftershocks being over magnitude 6.0 and three over magnitude 7.0. Sendai was the nearest major ci… With a magnitude of 9.1 making it the most powerful recorded earthquake to ever hit Japan. in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. Damaging tsunami waves struck the coasts of Iwate prefecture, just north of Miyagi prefecture, and Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Chiba, the prefectures extending along the Pacific coast south of Miyagi. The tsunami also instigated a major nuclear accident at a power station along the coast. (The early estimate of magnitude 8.9 was later revised upward.) This is a list of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake.Japan had experienced 900 aftershocks after the M9.1 earthquake on March 11, 2011 with about 60 aftershocks being over magnitude 6.0 and three over magnitude 7.0. https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Tōhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami The temblor also shortened the length of a day by about a microsecond. the deadliest tsunami since the 1993 Hokkaido earthquake generated a tsunami which was responsible for over 200 At 2:45 pm on March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake rocked Japan. It also was the strongest to ever be recorded in the Tohoku region, as well as the having the largest fault slip ever in human history. Ken Pletcher was Senior Editor, Geography and History for Encyclopædia Britannica. If the initial estimate is confirmed, it will be the fifth largest earthquake in recorded history. Tōhoku Earthquake (2011) – 9.1 Japan’s devastating 8.9 magnitude earthquake in 2011 is continuing to cause problems, with seismologists calling the county’s most recent quake an ‘aftershock’. Image of the Day Land Water Human Presence Earthquakes. Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. "2011 Miyagi earthquake" redirects here. An earthquake in Japan that occurred on Tuesday January 17, 1995 at 05:46 JST in the … Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This is because the magnitude of the earthquake was small, and the source area, which was estimated from the aftershock distribution and seismic waves, didn't cover the whole expected source region. The 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile earthquake shortened the day by about 1.26 µs and shifted earth’s figure axis by about 8 cm. The megathrust earthquake involved the Juan de Fuca Plate from mid-Vancouver Island, south along the Pacific Northwest coast as far as northern California.The length of the fault rupture was about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles), with an average slip … The sudden horizontal and vertical thrusting of the Pacific Plate, which has been slowly advancing under the Eurasian Plate near Japan, displaced the water above and spawned a series of highly destructive tsunami waves. The M 8.6 earthquake of March 2, 1933, produced tsunami waves as high as 29 m on the Sanriku Coast and caused more than 3,000 fatalities. Earthquake and Tsunami near Sendai, Japan. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The 11 March 2011 magnitude-9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake off the eastern coast of Japan was one of the largest recorded earthquakes in history. 2. For conciseness, only earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 or an intensity greater than lower-6 on the shindo scale are listed here. Hundreds of aftershocks, dozens of magnitude 6.0 or greater and two of magnitude 7.0 or greater, followed in the days and weeks after the main quake. Days before, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake with 6.0 magnitude Days before, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake with 6.0 magnitude As part of his master's program,... Aerial view of damage to a portion of the northeastern coast of Honshu, Japan, following the offshore earthquake and resultant tsunami there on March 11, 2011. On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 8.9 earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) east of Sendai. 3. The effects of the earthquake were great devastation for the city of Santai. The earthquake shifted Earth on its axis of rotation by redistributing mass, like putting a dent in a spinning top. The magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck at 2:46 pm. In addition to Sendai, other communities hard-hit by the tsunami included Kamaishi and Miyako in Iwate; Ishinomaki, Kesennuma, and Shiogama in Miyagi; and Kitaibaraki and Hitachinaka in Ibaraki. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This magnitude 9.1 earthquake only released about 3 per cent of the energy of a theoretical magnitude 10 quake. Map prepared by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration depicting the tsunami wave height model for the Pacific Ocean following the March 11, 2011, earthquake off Sendai, Japan. The earthquake and tsunami. Hayes et al. The earthquake was initially reported as 7.9 Mw by the USGS before it was quickly upgraded to 8.8 Mw, then to 8.9 Mw, and then finally to 9.0 Mw. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w ) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km.wikipedia A massive tsunami, generated by a powerful undersea earthquake, engulfing a residential area in Natori, Miyagi prefecture, northeastern Honshu, Japan, on March 11, 2011. PDF 73.7 MB ; JPG 5.4 MB ; JPG 28.2 KB ; JPG 57.0 KB ; JPG 203.2 KB ; For More Information. 2. The sounds are real seismic data taken from 8 seismometers on a great circle around the globe, and sped up into the sonic range. Japan's 2011 earthquake struck close to the Japan Trench off the coast of Tōhoku at magnitude 9 on March 11. But don't worry—you won't notice the difference. The earthquake lasted for only 6 minutes killing 15,891 people. It was preceded by several foreshocks, including a magnitude-7.2 event centred approximately 25 miles (40 km) away from the epicentre of the main quake. Contact Your Close Friends and Loved Ones THE 2011 JAPAN TSUNAMI The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w) undersea megathrust off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth … And the 2004 magnitude-9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake moved the figure axis by about 7 cm. According to some reports, one wave penetrated some 6 miles (10 km) inland after causing the Natori River, which separates Sendai from the city of Natori to the south, to overflow. It is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in … For the aftershock that occurred on 7 April, see April 2011 Miyagi earthquake. 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